The plug in hybrid vehicles are important type of electric vehicle so in order to learn about PHEV cars we should have a Detailed knowledge about What is PHEV Cars?

From past few years the demand of Plug-in Hybrid vehicles is dramatically increased. The main reason of rise of the this demand is plug in hybrid vehicle can work with the help of petrol as well as electrical power.

Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) are getting popular day by day. So in order to get updated about futuristics cars we should have knowledge about PHEV cars.

After complete consumption of this piece of content, I assured you that you will get all necessary knowledge about Plug in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Without wasting time let's dig into the World of knowledge of Plug in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

let's deep drive into the world of learning about plug in hybrid vehicle i.e. phev cars with our first topic what is plug in hybrid vehicle.

What is PHEV Cars (Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle)

phev cars

A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) has an electric motor which get power by battery and an internal combustion engine that get powered by another fuel, such as gasoline or diesel.

Plugging into such a electric power source, the regenerative braking and the internal combustion engine can be used to charge the battery. Regenerative braking captures and stores kinetic energy that would otherwise be lost during braking.

A PHEV car's battery pack is usually larger than that of a typical hybrid electric car. During short trips, the vehicle may run entirely on electricity due to the larger battery pack.

A PHEV cars may take liquid gasoline from its onboard tank for longer trips and gives it a driving range that is comparable to a conventional vehicle. According to whatever mode allows the car to operate most efficiently, an internal computer determines when to utilise which type of fuel (battery electricity or liquid gasoline/diesel).

PHEV Cars meaning

PHEV Cars stands for plug in hybrid electric cars. For working of the PHEV cars they use internal combustion engine and battery for driving the power to the vehicle.

History of Plug in Hybrid Cars

Professor Andrew Frank of UC Davis, known as the "father of the modern plug-in hybrid," created the term "plug-in hybrid electric vehicle."

In the July 1969 issue of Popular Science featured an article on the General Motors XP-883 plug-in hybrid. The concept commuter vehicle housed six 12-volt lead–acid batteries in the trunk area and a transverse-mounted DC electric motor turning a front-wheel drive.

Although plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have a long history, the majority of significant commercial improvements have occurred since 2002.

Most PHEVs on the road between 2003 to 2010 were the aftermarket adaptations of 2004 and that of Toyota Prius hybrid electric vehicles, which had plug-in charging, extra lead-acid batteries added, and their electric-only range expanded.

Parts of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Car

The major components of PHEV Cars includes -

1. Transmission

2. Internal combustion engine (spark-ignited)

3. Exhaust system

4. Electric generator

5. Fuel tank (gasoline)

6. Fuel filler

7. Battery

8. Charging Port

9. Onboard charger

10. Electric traction motor

11. DC/DC converter

12. Power electronics controller

What is plug in hybrid vehicle

1. Transmission

To rotates the wheels, the transmission distributes mechanical power from the engine and / or electric traction motor.

2. Internal combustion engine (spark-ignited)

In this type of configuration, gasoline is injected into either the intake manifold or even in the combustion chamber, where gasoline is mixed with air before being ignited by a spark from a spark plug.

3. Exhaust system

The exhaust system is responsible for transferring the exhaust gases away from the engine by using the tailpipe. A three-way catalyst is used in the exhaust system to reduce engine-out emissions.

4. Electric generator

While braking, an electric generator creates electricity from the rotating wheels and transfers it to the traction battery pack. Motor generators are used in some vehicles to provide both drive and regeneration.

5. Fuel tank (gasoline)

This tank keeps fuel on board until the car the engine needs it.

6. Fuel filler

To fill the tank, a nozzle from a fuel dispenser is attached to the receptacle on the vehicle.

7. Battery (Auxiliary)

The low-voltage auxiliary battery in an electric drive vehicle provides power to start the vehicle before the traction battery is engaged, as well as it used to power vehicle accessories.

8. Charging Port

The charging port enables the system to charge the traction battery pack by connecting to an external power source.

9. Onboard charger

The onboard charger converts the incoming AC power from the charge port into the DC power for charging the traction battery. While charging the pack, it also connects with the charging equipment and analyses battery properties like voltage, current, temperature, and state of charge.

10. Electric traction motor

Using power from the traction battery pack, this motor drives the vehicle's wheels. Some vehicles use motor generators that perform both the drive and regeneration functions.

11. DC/DC converter

This device use to transform higher-voltage DC power from the traction battery pack to the lower-voltage DC electricity required to operate vehicle accessories and recharge the auxiliary battery.

12. Power electronics controller

This unit use to control the speed of the electric traction motor & the torque it produces by managing the flow of electrical energy given by the traction battery.

How PHEV Cars Work

Batteries power an electric motor, while another fuel, such as gasoline, powers an internal combustion engine (ICE) in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) . 

The ICE, a wall outlet, or charging equipment can all be used to charge PHEV batteries, as well as regenerative braking. 

Typically, the vehicle runs on electric power until the battery is nearly drained, at which point it switches to the ICE.

Recharging of Plug In Hybrid Cars

For the near upcoming future, the most likely location to charge your plug-in hybrid vehicle is your own garage or carport. The method you use will be determined on the plug-in hybrid model you own.

Depending on how far you plan to drive your phev cars each day, you'll need to charge it more frequently. You'll probably need to recharge on a daily basis if you want to commute frequently.

Currently, plug-in hybrid vehicles are not suitable for long distance journeys. You'll be utilising the internal combustion engine most of the time if you can't plug in frequently the vehicle. Even so, a plug-in hybrid like the Chevy Volt is still less expensive than a traditional internal combustion engine vehicle.

Types of Plug In Hybrid Cars

The two basic Types of Plug In Hybrid Cars are as follows -

1. Extended Range Electric Vehicles (EREVs) or Series plug-in hybrids

2. Blended or parallel Plug-in Hybrids 

1. Extended Range Electric Vehicles (EREVs) or Series plug-in hybrids

Only electricity is produced by the gasoline engine. Series plug-ins can run on electricity alone until the battery is depleted. The electric motor is then powered by the electricity generated by the gasoline engine. These vehicles may not require any gasoline at all for short distance rides.

2. Blended or parallel Plug-in Hybrids 

Under most driving conditions, both the engine and the electric motor are connected to the wheels and propel the car. Electric-only functioning is typically limited upto the moderate speeds.

Advantages of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle -

1. We can use fuel and battery electricity to drive the vehicle

2. Less pollution

3. Doesn't make noise in electric driving mode

4. High technology

5. They combine the advantages of a pure EV for short journeys or commutes with the convenience of a gas engine for longer travels without the worry of charging or range restrictions.

6. Some people may be eligible for a $7,500 federal tax credit.

7. Easy for driving

8. In traffic, fuel efficiency is important and this can be achieved by PHEV cars.

9. When we drive this vehicle with battery there is no pollution occurs.

Disadvantages of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV Cars)

1. Efficiency depends on battery type.

2. Relatively more expensive.

3. Fuel economy is not so good.

4. Complex for maintaining

5. Less boot space than petrol or diesel car.

6. Low battery charging speed as compared to full electrical vehicle.

Market information of Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle

A number of countries, including the United States, China, Japan, the Netherlands, & Canada, have adopted the PHEV. Other countries, such as France, Italy, Germany, Sweden, the United Kingdom, Norway, and Spain, are developing interest in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

Rising environmental concerns, stringent emission requirements, and government subsidies and tax incentives are driving the global plug-in hybrid electric vehicle market. The market for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles is constrained by factors such as high vehicle costs, a lack of infrastructure such as plug-in charging stations, and expensive battery costs.

The global electric vehicle market was valued at $163.01 billion in 2020, and is expected to grow to $823.75 billion by 2030, with a compound annual growth rate of 18.2% from 2021 to 2030.

Maintenance of PHEV Cars (Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle)

The amount of maintenance required depends on how the hybrid system is designed. Hybrid cars, for the most general, do not require any additional maintenance.

Plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEV cars) are similar to hybrid cars in that they use both gas and electricity. They rely on pure electric power at times, but they don't require any additional maintenance beyond that required by gas engines.

PHEV cars have fewer number of routine maintenance and servicing issues than that of traditional gasoline-powered automobiles. Because PHEVs include a gas engine, they require the same routine maintenance as gas vehicles, but because the vehicle can also be powered by the battery, the engine and its parts are utilised less frequently, resulting in less wear and tear.

How to choose Best Plug-in Hybrid Car

We can choose Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle based on following topics -

1. Performance

2. Availability

3. Performance

4. Incentive

5. Cost

6. Charging

1. Performance

Plug-in hybrids offer excellent miles per gallon ratings and lower emissions when gas and electric miles are combined. Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle offer lesser emissions and good miles per gallon ratings even when running on gas.

2. Availability

Plug-in hybrids come in a number of shapes and sizes, as well as a range of prices. We can choose best PHEVs model based on our necessity.

3. Incentive

PHEV cars may be eligible for a variety of incentives, including the Clean Air Vehicle decal, California's Clean Vehicle Rebate Project, and programmes to encourage the ownership of clean transportation in low-income and the disadvantaged areas.

4. Cost

Although plug-in hybrids are more expensive than traditional gas cars, there are incentives and multiple lease options available for qualifying plug-in hybrids that decrease upfront costs and allow drivers to acquire technology upgrades faster.

Oil changes, filters, and other routine maintenance are required for plug-in hybrids as well, but the frequency is greatly reduced.

5. Charging

Plug-in hybrids use both electricity and gasoline to recharge and refuel. They can charge using the vehicle's chord set, which works with regular 120-volt household outlets, or by plugging into a more powerful Level 2 charger. This type of charger can be found at work, at home, or at many public parking lots.

Difference between Hybrid Cars and Plug-in Hybrid Cars

Specifications Hybrid Car Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle / PhEV cars
Energy source gasoline engine and an electric motor. primarily using its electric motor, powered by the battery also uses gadoline Engine for long distance travels
Dependency on fuel To enhance fuel efficiency, standard hybrid automobiles utilize their gas and electric motors simultaneously. Plug-in hybrid vehicle switch to the gas engine after the electric power from battery is fully utilised.
Dependency on battery recharge Traditional hybrid vehicle does not depend on battery recharging. Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle depends on battery recharging.
Battery purpose To drive car in slow speed Battery is an primary source of energy.
Battery Cost and Size Battery is available in moderate cost and small size as compared to PHEVs Battery is in big size and more expensive to replace.
Battery recharging source Regenerative braking Requires external power supply to fast recharge.
Gasoline power Used in most of driving conditions. Used when electric power runs low or along with battery power.
Price Less as compared to Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle Expensive than hybrid vehicle.
Maintenance cost Less More
Boot space More Less
Toxic emissions Hybrid Vehicle reduces toxic emissions by switch off the internal combustion engine at idle. While running on battery power plug in hybrid vehicle produces almost zero pollution.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

Does plug-in hybrid Need gas?

Answer - Plug-in Hybrid works on battery for shorter distance but in case of longer journey if battery drain out fully then the PHEVs work on Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) that works using Gasoline or Diesel.

Can phev charge while driving?

Answer - When you are driving plug-in hybrid car, battery charge slightly but due to larger battery pack the whole battery doesn't get charge while driving. So you need to use external power source to fully charge the battery.

What happens when PHEV Cars battery runs out?

Answer - When PHEV battery runs out the car automatically switched to Internal Combustion Engine as an power source.

Which is better self-charging or plug-in hybrid?

Answer - The Plug-in Hybrid contain larger battery pack means it can cover more miles as compair to self charging vehicle. PHEV cars are also compatible with city rides.

How much does it cost to charge a plug-in hybrid?

Answer - The majority of drivers charge their phev cars overnight, ensuring that they wake up with a fully charged battery. In the United Kingdom, the average home power rate is around 28p per kWh**. A 60kWh electric car with a range of 200 miles will cost roughly £15 to fully charge (depending on location you live).

Are plug-in hybrid good for long commute?

Answer - For initial miles plug-in hybrid will work fully on battery power. When battery power depleted it switched to ICE which work on Gasoline. So for longer distance plug in hybrid vehicle become profitable.

What happens if you don't plug-in a plug-in hybrid?

Answer - As long as you keep filling up the gas tank, a plug-in hybrid will never need to be plugged in and will continue to operate in "hybrid" mode (using a combination of the gas engine & electric motor).

How often should you charge a phev cars ?

Answer - The battery of PHEV cars get charged internally by power driving from combustion engine, but it is not enough. You have to charge the battery by external sources when battery gets low. You should not charge PHEV every day, charge it only when it's necessary 

Are plug in hybrid cars worth it?

Answer - Yes, buying the plug in hybrid cars totally worth it because in today's Era VR using major gasoline based vehicles and also we are trangisting toward the electric vehicles so in today's situation it is better to buy plug in hybrid cars for better performance and good mobility.

 Further reading -

1. Top Plug in Hybrid Cars 

What is PHEV car [Complete Guidance]

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